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- Cystic medial necrosis of aorta
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Newborn infants have a functionally mature hypothalamic-pituitary axis and can mount a ﬁght-or-ﬂight response order 100mg januvia free shipping diabetic necklace. MEASUREMENT OF PAIN IN CHILDREN Ongoing assessment is essential to adequate pain treatment purchase 100mg januvia amex diabetes mellitus quimica. Reliable januvia 100 mg visa diabetes mellitus latin, valid cheap januvia 100mg otc diabetic diet 2013, and clinically sensitive tools exist to assess pain in children from neonates to adolescents buy viagra professional 100mg with mastercard. Pain and response to treatment generic prednisone 20 mg with visa, including adverse effects buy cheap cialis sublingual 20 mg, should be routinely mon- itored by caregivers (‘‘the ﬁfth vital sign’’) and recorded on the patient’s record to facilitate communication between caregivers. Pain can be assessed by a variety of 243 244 Lee and Myson Yaster measures, including self-report (visual analogs scales, Oucher scale), physiological (heart rate, vagal tone, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation), behavioral (facial activity, cry, and body movements), and composite measures [Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS), Premature Infant Pain Proﬁle (PIPP)], depending on the age and cog- nitive ability of the child and his communication skills. Rating scales have been vali- dated to assess pain in cognitively impaired patients and young children. Accurate pain assessment requires consideration of the plasticity of pain per- ception and the developmental and psychological state of the child. Pain expression reﬂects the physical and emotional state, coping style, and family and cultural expectations and can be misinterpreted by the health-care provider. Careful and thorough assessment is required in children with severe developmental disabilities, as well as severely emotionally disturbed children. Proxy report from a parent, guardian, or caregiver is often used in young children, but the proxy will often underestimate the pain experience. DEVELOPMENTAL PHARMACOLOGY It is well known that the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of analgesics change during the child’s development. Whereas neonates have reduced clearance of many drugs, chil- dren 2–6 years of age have greater weight-normalized clearance than adults for many drugs. This greater clearance in young children is attributed to the larger liver mass=kilogram of body weight, resulting in higher rates of metabolism of drugs by the cytochrome P-450 mechanism. More rapid clearance by the liver usually means that more frequent dosing intervals are required in young children. NOCICEPTIVE PAIN General Principles Nociceptive pain is pain that is associated with tissue injury or inﬂammation and serves a protective role in preventing further injury. Common examples of nociceptive pain include pain due to trauma, surgery, or obstruction of a viscus. Chronic nociceptive pain is common in children, and recurrent pain (headaches, abdominal, and muscu- loskeletal pain) occurs in as many as 30–40% of children on a weekly basis. Pain assessment and management in children with a signiﬁcant neurologic impairment present many challenges, and factors to consider include the patient’s baseline beha- vioral and health condition, developmental level, and communicative ability. Gen- eral principles of pain management include regular pain assessments, appropriate analgesics with regular dosing intervals, and adjunctive therapy to treat side effects. Acetaminophen and non-steroidal anti-inﬂammatory drugs NSAIDs are useful for relieving milder forms of nociceptive pain. Guiding principles of analgesic administration include the follow- ing: ‘‘by the clock’’—regular analgesic administration with ﬁxed doing intervals and ‘‘rescue’’ doses for ‘‘breakthrough’’ pain, ‘‘by the child’’—regular assessment for clinical effectiveness and individualized dosing, and ‘‘by the mouth’’—analgesics given by the simplest and most effective route. Management of Pediatric Pain 245 Classes of Medications Antipyretics with Weak Analgesic Properties The ‘‘weaker’’ or ‘‘milder’’ analgesics, of which acetaminophen, salicylate, ibuprofen, naproxen, and diclofenac are the classic examples, comprise a heterogeneous group of NSAIDs and nonopioid analgesics with antipyretic properties. These analgesic agents are usually administered enterally and are particularly useful for inﬂammatory, bony, or rheumatic pain. Parenterally administered NSAIDs, such as ketorolac, are now available for use in children in whom the oral or rectal routes of administration are not possible. Unfortunately, regardless of dose, the nonopioid analgesics reach a ‘‘ceiling effect’’ above which pain cannot be relieved by these drugs alone. The most commonly used nonopioid analgesic in pediatric practice remains acetaminophen. Unlike aspirin and the NSAIDs, acetaminophen has minimal, if any, anti-inﬂammatory activity. When administered in normal doses (10–15 mg=kg, PO or PR), acetaminophen has very few serious side effects. It is an antipyretic and like all enterally administered NSAIDs takes about 40–60 min to provide effective analgesia. Dosage guidelines for the most commonly used non- opioid analgesics are listed in Table 1. Recent studies have recommended acetamino- phen doses as high as 30–40 mg=kg when administered rectally as a single (loading) dose.